Psychological and physiological changes in men over 40

Psychological and physiological changes in men over 40

With age, our bodies tend to change and adapt to the environment according to these changes. Among men and women, there is a series of hormonal and structural changes with the increasing age.

Psychological changes:

Our brain comprises cells as neurons make connections with each other to work. These connections tend to communicate with each other through neurotransmitters for conveying the signals and leading to the response.

The human brain divides into lobes as the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. After 40, the weight and volume of the brain tend to decrease by 5%. This occurs due to shrinkage or death (progressive) of grey matter. A decline in white matter and grey matter affects the frontal lobe, which has functions with critical thinking, perception, and memory (1).

Mental health is of great importance. Sound mental health can help with the proper functioning of the body as a whole. Mental disorders can paralyze the individual to perform and actively participate in the community emotionally and cognitively.

  • A decline in memory and perception:

There are a few reasons behind memory decline after 40 years among men:

  • Age-dependent decline in the functioning of the hippocampus
  • A reduction in the concentration of dopamine neurotransmitter with the age
  • Increase in the production of beta-amyloid protein (2).

Intake of omega-3 fatty acids can increase the production of dopamine and decrease beta-amyloid proteins.

Other than it, meditation and massage therapy can also induce dopamine stimulation.


  • Sleep impairment:

Sleep is directly linked with mental health. During middle age, men tend to suffer from several emotional, work-related, and family-related stresses. These stressors affect the ability of an individual to have a sound sleep (3).

With age, the causes of poor sleep are:

  • A decrease in the duration of deep sleep
  • Increase in awakenings at night time

Supplementation with zinc can help the individuals suffering from poor quality sleep in their mid-age.

  • Cognition and behavioral changes:

Due to the degeneration of neurons and neural connections, men can suffer from alterations in cognition with age.

Age has various detrimental effects on behaviors, cognitions, and perception.

Physical exercises, strengthening of the body, and optimizing diet can help with the cessation of negative degeneration of neurons in the brain.

Cardiovascular exercises can improve blood and oxygen flow to the brain and body, improving brain volume (4).

Physiological changes:

  • Muscle mass and fat:

Men tend to lose their LBM (lean body mass) and gain or store fat inside their skin layers with age. Fat accumulations tend to occur in a pear or apple-shaped belly (5).

Strength training and resistive exercises can help with endurance and the buildup of muscle mass.


  • Cardiovascular health:

Men tend to increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases after the decade of 40 years of age. It can lead to atherosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels), hypertension, and heart failure (in severe cases) (6).

Every five years, go for a checkup of your cholesterol levels, diabetes, and triglyceride levels. Regular screening will help to find the culprits in their earlier stages.


  • Alopecia:

Alopecia is the disease of hair fall in which men can undergo male pattern baldness in their 40s. It occurs due to several hormonal changes and genetics (7).

Due to alopecia, men can also suffer from negative personality perception, affecting their mental health.

Minoxidil solution and Finasteride are FDA-approved solutions for alopecia.


  • Hormonal changes:

Testosterone is the male hormone that tends to fall with age (8). Moreover, melatonin and growth hormone also decrease from this age.

Lack of testosterone causes other body effects as:

  • A decrease in the quality of sperms (9)
  • Reduction in body muscle mass
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Decrease of interest in sexual activities


  • A decline in the immune system:

Immunosenescence is the aging process that reduces the efficiency of the innate immune system and adaptive immune system.

The extent of the decline in the immune system also depends upon other factors (10) as stress levels and other comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension).

  • Nutrition is the best weapon against age-related decline in the immune system.
  • Supplementation with vitamin E, probiotics, and zinc can improve the functions of the immune system.
  • Restriction of calorie intake can also have the best anti-aging effects, but you should do it under the supervision of any professional.


With age, our bodies tend to lose their youth and suffer from a decline in functioning. Men tend to suffer this decline after 40 years of age. The best advice to cope with this decline is a preventive lifestyle that can minimize damage to the body. Give proper attention to your diet, supplementation, and physical activity.

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